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Read e-book The Strategic Use of Referendums: Power, Legitimacy, and Democracy

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Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview The strategic use of referendums by leaders often confers legitimacy but it may also reflect the power struggle between leaders, groups, and institutions and in doing so not provide a democratic result for the citizenry of a country. Product Details About the Author. Average Review.

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This unique perspective offers a framework for identifying this behaviour and reestablishing appropriate business behavior standards. Chinese Strategic Thought toward Asia. This book traces the development of Chinese thinking over four periods from the s on This book traces the development of Chinese thinking over four periods from the s on and covers strategies toward: Russia and Central Asia, Japan, the Korean peninsula, Southeast and South Asia, and regionalism.

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It compares strategic thinking, arguing that the Japanese Strategic Thought toward Asia. It facilitates the comprehension of choices. And it treats minority voices with respect.

This essay proposes practical ways of promoting adversarial deliberation, in particular the organization of debates disconnected from electoral competition. Is deliberative democracy a dated paradigm for a precrisis order, maladjusted to the world of Occupy, the Pirate Party, the Zapatistas, and other antirepresentative movements?


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And is deliberative democracy thus at risk of becoming collateral damage of the current crisis of representative democracy? In open democracy, popular rule means the mediated but real exercise of power by ordinary citizens. This new paradigm privileges nonelectoral forms of representation, and in it, power is meant to remain constantly inclusive of and accessible to all citizens. Deliberative democracy has the potential to legitimize collective decisions.

They conclude by describing how deliberative contexts could be modified to reduce certain types of power asymmetries, such as those often associated with gender, race, or class. Robustly defending the model of competitive democracy, Ian Shapiro argues that calls to inject deliberation into democratic politics rest on a misdiagnosis of its infirmities. Deliberation, Shapiro continues, undermines competition over proposed political programs, while deliberative institutions are all-too-easily hijacked by people with intense preferences and disproportionate resources.

Shapiro concludes that a better focus would be on restoring meaningful competition between representatives of two strong political parties over the policies that, if elected, they will implement.

But she does propose several uses of mini-publics that could enhance the democratic legitimacy of political decision-making in current societies. Both politicians and citizens have the capacity to deliberate when institutions are appropriate, yet high-quality deliberation can collide with democratic principles and ideals. Deliberative critics contend that the deliberative process inevitably perpetuates societal inequalities and can produce distorted dialogue determined by inequalities, not merits.

Alice Siu, however, presents empirical evidence demonstrating that inequalities in skill and status do not translate into inequalities of influence when deliberations are carefully structured to provide a more level playing field.

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Much of the time, the U. Cass R. Sunstein, who served in the Obama administration, explores the concrete practices, rather than the abstract ideals, of the operation of deliberative democracy in the executive branch. They find that the projects were representative, produced substantial opinion change, avoided distortions, and achieved actionable results that can be expected to influence policy on difficult choices. Authoritarian rule in China increasingly involves deliberative practices that combine authoritarian command with deliberative influence, producing the apparent anomaly of authoritarian deliberation.

Warren explore two possible trajectories of political development in China in this context: that the increasing use of deliberative practices could stabilize and strengthen authoritarian rule, or deliberative practices could serve as a leading edge of democratization.

Summer James Fishkin and Jane J. Back to browse all issues. Community members in Flint, Michigan, gather on February 6, , to discuss the lead contamination crisis.

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